The musical characteristics of the baroque era

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The musical characteristics of the baroque era

These years were marked by constant warfare, the absence of a Holy Roman Emperor, and the virtual disappearance of urban life. Over the next next nine centuries, the newly emerging Christian Church came to dominate Europe, administering justice, instigating "Holy" Crusades against the East, establishing Universities, and generally dictating the destiny of music, art, and literature.

It was during this time that Pope Gregory I is generally believed to have collected and codified the music known as Gregorian Chantwhich was the approved music of the Church. Much later, the University at Notre Dame in Paris saw the creation of a new kind of music called organum.

And it was during these "Middle Ages" that Western culture saw the appearance of the first great name in music, Guillaume de Machaut.

The Renaissance Generally considered to be from ca. With the rise of humanism, sacred music began for the first time to break free of the confines of the Church, and a school of composers trained in the Netherlands mastered the art of polyphony in their settings of sacred music.

One of the early masters of the Flemish style was Josquin des Prez.

The musical characteristics of the baroque era

These polyphonic traditions reached their culmination in the unsurpassed works of Giovanni da Palestrina.

Of course, secular music thrived during this period, and instrumental and dance music was performed in abundance, if not always written down. It was left for others to collect and notate the wide variety of irrepressible instrumental music of the period.

The late Renaissance also saw in England the flourishing of the English madrigalthe best known of which were composed by such masters as John Dowland, William Byrd, Thomas Morley and others. The Baroque Age Named after the popular ornate architectural style of the time, the Baroque period ca.

This was a time when the many monarchies of Europe vied in outdoing each other in pride, pomp and pageantry.

Early Italian operatic schools

Many monarchs employed composers at their courts, where they were little more than servants expected to churn out music for any desired occasions. The greatest composer of the period, Johann Sebastian Bachwas such a servant. Yet the best composers of the time were able to break new musical ground, and in so doing succeeded in creating an entirely new style of music.

It was during the early part of the seventeenth century that the genre of opera was first created by a group of composers in Florence, Italy, and the earliest operatic masterpieces were composed by Claudio Monteverdi. The instrumental concerto became a staple of the Baroque era, and found its strongest exponent in the works of the Venetian composer Antonio Vivaldi.

Harpsichord music achieved new heights, due to the works of such masters as Domenico Scarlatti and others. Dances became formalized into instrumental suites and were composed by virtually all composers of the era. But vocal and choral music still reigned supreme during this age, and culminated in the operas and oratorios of German-born composer George Frideric Handel.

The Classical Period From roughly toartists, architechts, and musicians moved away from the heavily ornamented styles of the Baroque and the Rococoand instead embraced a clean, uncluttered style they thought reminiscent of Classical Greece.

The newly established aristocracies were replacing monarchs and the church as patrons of the arts, and were demanding an impersonal, but tuneful and elegant music.

Dances such as the minuet and the gavotte were provided in the forms of entertaining serenades and divertimenti.

At this time the Austrian capital of Vienna became the musical center of Europe, and works of the period are often referred to as being in the Viennese style. Composers came from all over Europe to train in and around Vienna, and gradually they developed and formalized the standard musical forms that were to predominate European musical culture for the next several decades.

A reform of the extravagance of Baroque opera was undertaken by Christoph von Gluck. Johann Stamitz contributed greatly to the growth of the orchestra and developed the idea of the orchestral symphony.

The Classical period reached its majestic culmination with the masterful symphonies, sonatas, and string quartets by the three great composers of the Viennese school: During the same period, the first voice of the burgeoning Romantic musical ethic can be found in the music of Viennese composer Franz Schubert.

The Romantic Era As the many socio-political revolutions of the late eighteenth-century established new social orders and new ways of life and thought, so composers of the period broke new musical ground by adding a new emotional depth to the prevailing classical forms. Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth-century from ca.

The romantic artists are the first in history to give to themselves the name by which they are identified. The earliest Romantic composers were all born within a few years of each other in the early years of the nineteenth century.Explanations and musical examples can be found through the Oxford Music Online, accessed through the Potsdam Library page at timberdesignmag.com About the Baroque Period Derived from the Portuguese barroco, or “oddly shaped pearl,” the term “baroque” has been widely used since the nineteenth century to describe the period in Western European art music from about to What musical forms came to define the baroque era?

Classical period (music) - Wikipedia

While forms from earlier eras continued to be used, such as the motet or particular dances, the interest in music as a form of rhetoric sparked the development of new genres, particularly in .

A work for string quartet in the classical era had the same pattern of movements as a symphony, except that sometimes the minuet & trio is the second movement, and the slow movement is the third A as alternative to the minuet-and-trio form for his third movements, Beethoven often used the.

Baroque music generally uses many harmonic fantasies and polyphonic sections that focus less on the structure of the musical piece, and there was less emphasis on clear musical phrases.

In the classical period, the harmonies became simpler. Baroque music (US: / b ə ˈ r oʊ k / or UK: / b ə ˈ r ɒ k /) is a period or style of Western art music composed from approximately to This era followed the Renaissance music era, and was followed in turn by the Classical era.

What is Baroque Music? - Music of the Baroque