The Population Registration Act of provided the basic framework for apartheid by classifying all South Africans by race, including Bantu black AfricansColoured mixed race and white. A fourth category, Asian meaning Indian and Pakistani was later added. In some cases, the legislation split families; parents could be classified as white, while their children were classified as colored.
Early history[ edit ] The first internal passports in South Africa were introduced on 27 June by the Earl Macartney in an attempt to prevent natives from entering the Cape Colony.
By this time, versions of pass laws existed elsewhere. A major boost for their utilisation was the rise of the mining sector from the s: In the South African Republic brought in two pass laws which required Africans to carry a metal badge. Only those employed by a master were permitted to remain on the Rand.
Those entering a "labour district" needed a special pass which entitled them to remain for three days. Anyone found without a pass would be arrested immediately and sent to a rural area. It was replaced in by the Natives Urban Areas Consolidation Act, which imposed "influx control" on black men and also set up guidelines for removing people deemed to be living idle lives from urban areas.
To do so, they had to have Section 10 rights, based on whether  the person had been born there and resided there always since birth; the person had laboured continuously for ten years in any agreed area for any employer, or lived continuously in any such area for fifteen years; The Black Natives Laws Amendment Act of amended the Native Urban Areas Consolidation Act, stipulating that all black people over the age of 16 were required to carry passes, and that no black person could stay in an urban area more than 72 hours unless allowed to by Section The law stipulated where, when, and for how long a person could remain.
Employers often entered a behavioural evaluation, on the conduct of the pass holder.
The pass also documented permission requested and denied or granted to be in a certain region and the reason for seeking such permission. Under the terms of the law, any government employee could strike out such entries, basically cancelling the permission to remain in the area.
A passbook without a valid entry then allowed officials to arrest and imprison the bearer of the pass. These passes often became the most despised symbols of apartheid. The resistance to the Pass Law led to many thousands of arrests and was the spark that ignited the Sharpeville Massacre on March 21,and led to the arrest of Robert Sobukwe that day.
Colloquially, passes were often called the dompas, literally meaning the "dumb pass.
Indian people, for example, were barred from the Orange Free State. The s saw significant opposition to pass laws being applied to black women.
Inthe revolutionary syndicalist International Socialist League South Africain conjunction with the syndicalist Industrial Workers of Africa and the early African National Congress organised a major anti-pass campaign.
This conflict climaxed at the Sharpeville Massacrewhere the anti-pass protestors led by the rival breakaway Pan Africanist Congress of Azania PAC surrounded the Sharpeville police station, prompting the police to open fire, killing 69 people and injuring over Repeal in [ edit ] On July 23,as part of a process of removing some apartheid laws, the South African government lifted the requirement to carry passbooks, although the pass law system itself was not yet repealed.
Helen Suzman MP mentioned the act the most eminent reform of a government had ever introduced.Mellony Graven, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa In this paper I discuss an analysis of mathematics curriculum change in post-apartheid South Africa. I do this analysis from the perspective of the roles the new during the s and which brought about the abolition of apartheid and the.
Almost two decades have passed since the end of legalized racial segregation in South Africa, yet the abolition of apartheid remains the biggest legacy of Nelson Mandela.
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in Eventually brought greater equality.
South Africa has one of the highest HIV rates in the world; it exploded from a prevalence of % of the population in to now affecting % of those aged Importantly, the abolition of slavery did not change the colonial–feudal "slave–master" relations between black and white.
Instead, these slave–master relations imprinted themselves on South Africa’s political, social and economic structures for years to come.
While the timing of the Soviet collapse certainly played a role in the changes in South Africa, for de Klerk to say that sanctions had no impact in policy making would be dismissing the effectiveness of the anti-apartheid movement as a whole.