This glossary is a work in progress, intended to help exchange students taking the Current Issues in Communication and Information Sciences in Finland Course. The Glossary of Communication covers many areas and aspects of communication, but it is by no means a complete glossary of communication. As the entries are from books representing different approaches to communication, they do not necessarily form a consistent whole. However, all entries are from widely used textbooks covering large areas of interpersonal, group, organizational, mass, and intercultural communication.
Class distinctions in cultural life continued to be very important. However, it also came to characterize the provision of recreation for… The idea of mass society originated in the conservative reaction to the French Revolution — For critics such as Hippolyte Tainethe real significance of the Revolution lay not in the constitutional changes it brought about but in the deep social upheaval it caused.
For these thinkers, the Revolution undermined traditional institutions such as the Roman Catholic Church and thus weakened the social bonds that held French society together.
The Revolution, they argued, had not established liberty but, on the contrary, had allowed collective despotism free rein by weakening intermediary associations and communities. What was most problematic, however, was the manner in which they entered politics: Crowd mentality was conceived as a contagious—and dangerous—form of popular enthusiasm.
Crowd psychology influenced the later development of mass society theory. In fact, many social scientists used the concepts of crowd and mass interchangeably. Similar themes emerged from the popularization of mass society theory in the midth century. After World War IIsocial scientists and philosophers such as William Kornhauser and Erich Fromm turned to the concept of mass society in an effort to explain the conditions that made possible the transformation of the democratic Weimar Republic into the totalitarian Third Reich.
Others, such as the American sociologists Robert Nisbet and C. Wright Millssought to diagnose the apathyalienation, and general malaise they thought were afflicting modern societies.
Courtesy of Michigan State University Mass society theory was based on the thesis that modernity had severely eroded the social fabric. In mass society, individuals are at once subsumed in the social totality and estranged from one another. Individuals belonging to the mass are detached or atomized.
This separation does not preserve the uniqueness of each individual but, on the contrary, contributes to a process of social homogenization or leveling.
Thus, the condition of alienated individuals should not be confused with individual autonomy. The same social processes that isolate people in a mass society—the division of labourfor instance—also make them highly dependent on others. Unlike in the communities of old, however, this dependence is highly impersonal.
According to the German sociologist Theodor Geigertechnological advances created a society in which individuals are increasingly dependent on people they either do not know or do not care about.
With the decline of intermediary institutions, the argument continued, individuals are deprived of their social ties and are subject to manipulation by the state through mass communication and mass mobilization.
Theorists of mass society, however, disagreed on the principal cause of social disaggregation, some seeing it as rapid urbanizationothers as booming population growth or an alienating model of industrial production see mass production. Theories of mass society can be distinguished in terms of the kind of threat they associate with it.
Viewed from this perspective, mass society or, more precisely, mass culture is characterized by a growing uniformity in tastes and an egalitarian leveling that leaves no place for excellence. Critics of mass society can be found across the left — right ideological spectrum.
A minority of theorists, including the French sociologist Gabriel Tardeembraced mass society as a means of bringing together people of different backgrounds, occupations, and classes and giving them a sense of belonging to a single group.
Similarly, the American sociologist Edward Shils rejected standard criticisms of mass society as based on a caricature; indeed, he lauded mass society for its inclusiveness and its valorization of individuality.
A common critique was that they relied on a romantic and inaccurate representation of premodern communities. Moreover, the idea that individuals in modern societies are uprooted and atomized seemed to be refuted by studies showing the persistent relevance of interpersonal relationships, intermediary groups and associations, and social networks.
The image of mass society as a unified totality was also contested by the relatively new pluralist school in American political science. Studying local dynamics of power, pluralists such as Robert A. Dahl argued that society is not a monolithic mass and it is not ruled by a united elite.
Rather, it is shaped by the intervention of diverse groups representing a plurality of interests. Although mass society theory has lost much of its appeal, some of its themes have been revived in work since the s by so-called neo-Tocquevillian theorists such as Robert D.
Putnamwho argued that democracy is threatened by the weakened state of civil society.Theory formation in social research: A plea for pluralism. tended to exist alongside the existence of society.
Besides, theories are meant to establish cause and effect, so as to proffer. Media theory refers to the complex of social-political-philosophical principles which organize ideas about the relationship between media and society.
Within this is a type of theory called `normative theory’, which is concerned with what the media ought to be doing in society rather than what they actually do. Social Responsibility theory of mass media is relatively a new concept which started in the midth century and is used mostly by developing and least developed countries.
The theory started from Europe and took a shape with the Commission on the Freedom of Press that happened in United States in Outline the View That a Consumer Society Is a Divided Society To understand how a consumer society could be seen as a divided one I am going to look at some evidence and theories from a number of different sources.
In these views we will examine arguments put forward by some social scientists as to. Media Standards: A Model for Auditing Transparency, Good Governance and Ethics of Journalism. Resources. Courses. but we do support the creation of a legal and social framework, that encourages journalists to respect and follow the established values of their craft.
The overuse of the procedure known as colonoscopies as a prophylactic for colon cancer, has not only become quite a fad in recent decades, but also a multimillion dollar industry. Every year, over 14 million perfectly healthy individuals age 50 and up.