Characteristics of educational research[ edit ] There is no single "correct" way of conducting research in the field of education. Gary Anderson outlined ten aspects of educational research: Research involves gathering new data from primary or first-hand sources or using existing data for a new purpose. Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence.
In the text that follows, bold red print is used for an element in the ISM-diagram, and non-bold red print shows concepts that are not in the diagram.
Hypothetico-Deductive Logic, and Empirical Factors in Theory Evaluation This tour of ISM Integrated Scientific Method begins with hypothetico-deductive logic, the foundation for modern science that provides a "reality check" to guide the invention, evaluation, and revision of theories.
In ISM an experimental system for a controlled experiment or field study is defined as everything involved in an experiment, including what is being studied, what is done to it, and the observers which can be human or mechanical.
When a physical experiment is done with the experimental system, observation detectors are used to obtain observations. After defining an explanatory model for composition-and-operation, made by applying a general domain-theory to a specific experimental system that has been characterized by a system-theorya thought experiment can be done by asking, "IF this model is true, THEN what will occur?
Or, based on a descriptive model that is limited to observable properties and their relationships, scientists Educational research and the scientific method make predictions by using inductive logic, by making a deductive generalization that "IF this situation is similar or identical to previous situations, THEN we should expect a result that is similar or identical.
Most of this page was written in InI said, in a section about "Designing of Scientific Theories" in An Introduction to Scientific MethodIn their daily work, scientists rarely design large-scale generalized mega-theories, such as the theories of gravity, invariance, or evolution developed by Newton, Einstein, or Darwin.
Instead, they typically are applying generalized theories that already are accepted, in their study of particular experimental systems for which they are designing small-scale specialized sub-theories.
Even more commonly, scientists design experiments Part 6 based on mega-theories and sub-theories that already are accepted, with the goal of simply making observations so they can learn more about nature. The dual-parallel shape of the hypothetico-deductive "box" whose 4 corners are defined by the model and system, predictions and observations symbolizes two parallel relationships.
The left-side process done by mentally running a theory-based model parallels the right-side process done by physically running a real-world experimental system.
There is also a parallel between the top and bottom of the box. At the top, a hypothesis is a claim that the model and system are similar in some respects and to some degree of accuracy.
But a theory can be false even if its predictions agree with observations, so it is necessary to supplement this "agreement logic" with another criterion, the degree of predictive contrast, by asking "How much contrast exists between the predictions of this theory and the predictions of plausible alternative theories?
Estimates for these two evaluation criteria degree of agreement and degree of predictive contrast are combined to form an empirical evaluation of current hypothesis.
This evaluation and the analogous empirical evaluations of previous hypotheses that are based on the same theory as the current hypothesis, so both previous-and-current can be used to evaluate this theory are empirical factors that influence evaluation of the theory.
Conceptual Factors in Theory Evaluation In ISM the conceptual factors that influence theory evaluation are split into internal characteristics and external relationships.
Whether you are doing a science fair project, a classroom science activity, independent research, or any other hands-on science inquiry understanding the steps of the scientific method will help you focus your scientific question and work through your observations and data to . Scientific Method in Education Integrated Scientific Method describes what scientists do, but its main function is to improve science education, to help students learn scientific method — what it is and how they can do it. Practical Applications in Science Education. Research •It is formal systematic application of scientific method to the study of problem Educational Research It is formal systematic application of scientific method to the study of educational problem The goal is to explain, predict, and/or control educational phenomena.
Also, in each field of science there are expectations for the types of entities and actions that should and should not be included in a theory. The external relationships between theories including both scientific and cultural-personal theories can involve an overlapping of domains or a sharing of theory components.
Theories with domains that overlap are in direct competition because they claim to explain the same systems. Theories with shared components often provide support for each other, and can help to unify our understanding of the domains they describe.
There is some similarity between the logical structures for a theory composed of smaller components and for a mega-theory composed of smaller theoriesand many conceptual criteria can be applied to either internal structure within a theory or external relationships between theories in a mega-theory.
Cultural-Personal Factors in Theory Evaluation During all activities of science, including theory evaluation, scientists are influenced by cultural-personal factors. These five factors interact with each other, and operate in a complex social context that involves individuals, the scientific community, and society as a whole.
Science and culture are mutually interactive, with each affecting the other. The effects of culture, on both the process of science and the content of science, are summarized at the top of the ISM diagram: Thought Styles Some cultural-personal influence is due to a desire for personal consistency between ideas, between actions, and between ideas and actions.
For example, scientists are more likely to accept a scientific theory that is consistent with their metaphysical and ideological theories.
In the diagram this type of influence appears as a conceptual factor, external relationships All of these cultural-personal factors vary in different areas of science and in communities within each area, and for different individuals, so the types and amounts of resulting influences on the process of science and the content of science vary widely.
Theory Evaluation A theory is evaluated in association with supplementary theories, and relative to alternative theories. When a theory is retained after evaluation, its status can be increased, decreased, or unchanged. According to formal logic it is impossible to prove a theory is either true or false, but scientists have developed analytical methods that encourage them to claim a "rationally justified confidence" for their conclusions about status.
Each theory has two types of status:Introduction to Educational Research 1. Mrs. Smith is writing her daily observations of a student and writes, without interpretation, that the student is not completing .
Scientific Method in Education Integrated Scientific Method describes what scientists do, but its main function is to improve science education, to help students learn scientific method — what it is and how they can do it.
Practical Applications in Science Education. Educational Research and the Scientific Method Phoenix University April 12, Education and the Scientific Method Research can be defined as any compilation of facts, evidence of data, information and proof of truth for the advancement of knowledge.
Educational Research and the Scientific Method Phoenix University April 12, Education and the Scientific Method Research can be defined as any compilation of facts, evidence of data, information and proof of truth for the advancement of knowledge.
Application of the Scientific Method. There is no special point at which an investigator declares he is using the scientific method. Nevertheless, he applies the scientific method in the beginning stages of the selection of his problem.
8 P. M. Symonds, "Common Faults in Graduate Research in Education," Journal of Educational Research, Research •It is formal systematic application of scientific method to the study of problem Educational Research It is formal systematic application of scientific method to the study of educational problem The goal is to explain, predict, and/or control educational phenomena.