An introduction to the history of the human genome project

See Article History Alternative Title: HGP Human Genome Project HGPan international collaboration that successfully determined, stored, and rendered publicly available the sequences of almost all the genetic content of the chromosomes of the human organism, otherwise known as the human genome. The Human Genome Project HGPwhich operated from toprovided researchers with basic information about the sequences of the three billion chemical base pairs i.

An introduction to the history of the human genome project

Participants are NHS patients with a rare disease, plus their families, and patients with cancer. The aim is to create a new genomic medicine service for the NHS — transforming the way people are cared for.

In time, there is the potential of new and more effective treatments. The project will also enable new medical research. Combining genomic sequence data with medical records is a ground-breaking resource.

Researchers will study how best to use genomics in healthcare and how best to interpret the data to help patients. The causes, diagnosis and treatment of disease will also be investigated. We also aim to kick-start a UK genomics industry.

This is currently the largest national sequencing project of its kind in the world. Introduction In April one of the most significant scientific breakthroughs of modern times was announced.

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After years of painstaking research carried out by thousands of dedicated scientists across the world, the complete genetic code of a human being — their genome — could now be published.

The Human Genome Project, as this work was known, was the largest international collaboration ever undertaken in biology with British scientists leading the global race to read the human genome, which is made of DNA, letter by letter, a technique called sequencing.

Now there is a real opportunity to turn the very important scientific discoveries about DNA and the way it works into a potentially life-saving reality for NHS patients across the country. Most of us have heard of genetics, the study of the way particular features or diseases are inherited through genes passed down from one generation to the next.

But the more we learn about genes, the more we understand that the old idea of having a single gene for this, or a single gene for that, which determines your fate is not — except in the case of unusual inherited diseases — a good way of describing the complexity of genes.

In fact, groups of genes work together and their activity is influenced by a huge variety of environmental and other factors. And we now know that the DNA between your genes is also very important. You have a complete set of genes in almost every healthy cell in your body.

One set of all these genes, plus the DNA between the genesis called a genome. Genomics is the study of the whole genome and how it works but has also come to have a broader meaning to include the way that the genome is interpreted and the technologies that have been developed to help do this.

Why this focus on genomics now? When the first draft of the whole human genome was announced it was claimed that it would revolutionise medical treatment. It took such a long time because the DNA sequence of humans is very long — 3 billion letters — and because the sequencing machines available at the time were so slow and laborious.

One of the great surprises from the Human Genome Project was that there were only about 20, genes— about the same number as a starfish. Now we know that the remaining DNA is not irrelevant as was once thought but that much of it has a critically important role, influencing, regulating and controlling the rest.

But people are very different, so studying only a small number of genomes would not be enough to give doctors and scientists a true picture of our genes and their relationship to disease. To make sense of it, it is essential to know much more about the person who donated it; details like their symptoms and when they first started, along with physiological measurements, such as heart rate or blood pressure this sort of information is provided by clinicians and called phenotypic data.

Another set of information which may be important in interpreting genomic data comes from their past medical records and would include such things as previous illnesses, medications and birth weight. And this is where the NHS comes in. The richness of this data can help to understand disease and to tease apart the complex relationship between our genes, what happens to us in our lives and illness.

So what can genomics do? You can use it to predict how well a person will respond to a treatment or find one that will work best for them — so called personalised medicine. You can also use genomics to test how well a cancer might respond to radiotherapy.

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For some that can mean far fewer radiotherapy sessions. Or use it to find the 30, people who currently use insulin for their Type 1 diabetes but would do better on simple tablets. Genomics can be used to track infectious disease, precisely pinpointing the source and nature of the outbreak through looking at the whole genomes of bugs.

The potential of genomics is huge, leading to more precise diagnostics for earlier diagnosis, new medical devices, faster clinical trials, new drugs and treatments and potentially, in time, new cures.

The supersonic age of genomics has begun. And just as the NHS has been at the forefront of scientific breakthroughs before, we want the NHS to be at the forefront again, with its patients benefiting from all that genomics offers, becoming the first mainstream health service in the world to offer genomic medicine as part of routine care for NHS patients.

Introduction to the 100,000 Genomes Project

Its four main aims are; to create an ethical and transparent programme based on consent; to bring benefit to patients and set up a genomic medicine service for the NHS; to enable new scientific discovery and medical insights; and to kick start the development of a UK genomics industry.

The project will focus on patients with a rare disease and their families and patients with cancer. The first samples for sequencing are being taken from patients living in England with discussions taking place with Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland about potential future involvement.

Why cancer and rare diseases?

An introduction to the history of the human genome project

In the UK, just fewer thanpeople died from cancer in with overnew cases reported every year. Because cancer is more likely to occur as people age, we expect the number of cancer cases to rise as people live longer.Introduction to personal genetics Aim: How might new advances in personal genetics impact our lives, our medical decisions and society?

**Updated for ** Summary: This lesson introduces students to the recent advances in genetics, genetic testing and personal genome sequencing, and presents some of the decisions and ethical challenges an individual may face regarding the use of this technology. has been an NCCRS member since October The mission of is to make education accessible to everyone, everywhere. Students can save on their education by taking the online, self-paced courses and earn widely transferable college credit recommendations for a fraction of the cost of a traditional course.

The Human Genome Project (HGP) was the international, collaborative research program whose goal was the complete mapping and understanding of all the genes of human beings. All our genes together are known as our "genome.". Drawing the Map of Life: Inside the Human Genome Project.

An introduction to the history of the human genome project

Basic Books. ISBN pages. Examines the intellectual origins, history, and motivations of the project to map the human genome; draws on interviews with key figures. Collins, F. (). The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief. Free Press. The Human Genome Project is a long-term project by international scientist to develop detailed genetic and physical maps of the human genome.

Researchers are engaged in locating and identifying all of its genes and establishing the sequence of the genes and all other components of the genome. This. Human Genome Project: Human Genome Project, an international collaboration that determined, stored, and rendered publicly available the sequences of almost all the genetic content of the chromosomes of the human organism, otherwise known as the human genome.

Learn more about the history and science behind the Human Genome Project.

Human Genome Project | History, Timeline, & Facts |