Gad Heuman Kenneth M. University Press of Florida.
Scholars generally distinguish two kinds of marronage, though there is overlap between them. Grand marronage could be carried out by individuals or small groups, or it could be the result of plantation-wide breakouts, or even colony-wide rebellions.
Although exact numbers do not exist, and in any event may have been smaller than previously thought, maroon societies were created throughout the Atlantic world.
They were particularly prevalent in areas such as Brazil, Jamaica, and Suriname. Some communities existed for a few years; others persisted for centuries. In some countries, descendant of maroons still live in semi independent villages, though they are increasingly under siege.
Wherever maroons existed, they shared certain characteristics, even as geography and historical dynamics created great variations.
While maroons separated themselves from slave society, they did not live in isolation. Most had significant interactions with colonists and native peoples, as well as other maroons. Many maroons lived in a perpetual state of war.
Colonizers generally wanted to wipe them out to prevent as yet enslaved people from joining them, and to put a stop to predatory attacks on plantations. In some areas, maroons and colonists eventually concluded treaties that recognized maroon autonomy in exchange for limited cooperation with colonial authorities in returning runaways slaves or putting down slave rebellions.
Such cooperation has created controversy, both among descendants and scholars, as people debate how such actions should be assessed. In other cases, maroons and colonists were quite interdependent, trading extensively with each other.
Relationships with native peoples, too, took a variety of forms, ranging from cooperation and intermarriage to hostility. In addition, maroons had to manage their relationships with each other. Thus, under challenging circumstances, maroons created political, economic, social, spiritual, and cultural institutions out of multiple traditions, with roots in Africa and in the Americas, and subject to new world contingencies.
Maroons have been attractive research targets for scholars ranging from linguists and anthropologists to historians and archaeologists. In the process of illuminating maroons, researchers are gaining greater insight into the African diasporic experience more generally. General Overviews and Anthologies There is as yet not only one single panoramic view of marronage in the New World.
Florentino and Amantino presents the most comprehensive summary in terms of chronology and geographical breadth. Thompson is an interpretive work that focuses on specific issues among some of the most famous maroon societies. In addition, there are several useful comparative anthologies that may be used as gateways to the various locations, time periods, and types of marronage in the past.
The most influential has been Price first published in which founded the field of maroon studies and has been reissued a number of times with a new introduction inan indication of its importance to the field.
It has appeared in a number of translations. Heuman and Hoogbergen provide exciting collections of essays that allow for cross-regional comparisons. Any student should start with these.
Tardieu explains the Arawak origin of the term cimarron, from which marronage derives. Edited by David Eltis and Stanley L. Cambridge University Press, Useful entry point for anyone new to the topic. Unfortunately provides only a limited bibliography.
Out of the House of Bondage: Appeared first as special issue of Slavery and Abolition. This collection of important articles by well-known scholars looks at runaways and maroons in Africa and the New World.
Born out of Resistance: On Caribbean Cultural Creativity. Covers the myriad ways in which enslaved people resisted bondage, including marronage in the greater Caribbean. In English, French, and Spanish.
Rebel Slave Communities in the Americas. With a new Preface. John Hopkins University Press, Maroons played an important role in the histories of Brazil, Suriname, Puerto Rico, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Cuba, and Jamaica. There is much variety among Maroon cultural groups because of differences in history, geography, African nationality, and the culture of indigenous people throughout the Western hemisphere.
Suriname - Maroons. Permission requested to use infromation from timberdesignmag.com When runaway slaves banded together and subsisted independently they were called Maroons. On the Caribbean Islands runaway slaves formed bands and on some islands formed armed camps. Maroon communities faced great odds to survive against white .
|By the end of the s the word was being used primarily to refer to Afro-American runaways and already had strong connotations of "fierceness," of being "wild" and "unbroken," of being indomitable. In the man who would become the first Afro-American Maroon arrived on the first ship carrying enslaved Africans to the New World.|
|Some were dissatisfied with working conditions; others had been severely punished; others attempted to follow loved ones who were sold to distant locations; still others simply wished to take a break from the drudgery of bondage.|
Maroons: Rebel Slaves in the Americas Richard Price The man who was to become the first African-American maroon arrived within a decade of Columbus' landfall on the very first slave ship to reach the Americas. One of the last maroons to escape from slavery was still alive in Cuba only 15 years ago.
The released and runaway slaves, aided by Jamaica's mountainous terrain; evaded capture, formed fighting bands and eventually split into two powerful communities. It is from these remote communities that the Jamaican Maroons raided British settlements and plantations for supplies and attracted more runaway slaves.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Slavery had been practiced in British America from early colonial days, and was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in 4. Look at Source 2a, b and c. Having been the largest slaving nation, Britain became a determined abolitionist power after , using the Royal Navy to stop ships suspected of being slavers.